Quran, Noble Quran

Quran: [17:36] "You shall not accept any information, unless you verify it for yourself. I have given you the hearing, the eyesight, and the brain, and you are responsible for using them."

Quran: [49:12] "O ye who believe! Avoid suspicion as much (as possible): for suspicion in some cases is a sin: And spy not on each other behind their backs. Would any of you like to eat the flesh of his dead brother? Nay, ye would abhor it...But fear Allah. For Allah is Oft-Returning, Most Merciful."

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60. Arguing, Picking Apart Another’s Words, and Quarreling

Allah, the Almighty has said,

{There is the type of man whose speech about this worldly life may dazzle thee and he calls Allah to witness about what is in his heart, yet he is the most contentious of enemies. When he turns his back, his aim everywhere is to spread mischief through the earth and destroy crops and progeny but Allah loveth not mischief} (Al-Baqarah: 204-205)

Imam Al-Ghazali (may Allah have mercy on him) said, “Picking apart another’s words consists of attacking another’s speech by revealing the mistakes in it, involving no other motive than contempt for the other and displaying one’s cleverness. He also said, disputation is what relates to clarifying various legal positions and making a case for them.

Concerning arguing, he also said, “Arguing is importunateness in speech to gain one’s end, whether monetary or other. It may be initiated by oneself or in response to another.

An-Nawawi (may Allah have mercy on him) said, “Disputation may be true or false.”

Allah, the almighty said,

{And dispute ye not with the People of the Book, except in the best way.} (Al-’ Ankabut: 46)

He, the Almighty also said,

{And dispute with them in the best way.} (An-Nahl: 125)

He, Most High, also said,

{None can dispute about the signs of Allah but the unbelievers.} (Ghafir: 4)

Therefore, when the intention behind disputation is to reveal the truth, then it is recommended. But if it is intended to confront the truth or unknowingly done, then it is unlawful. According to this detail, the texts concerning its permissibility or prohibition were revealed. A certain person remarked, “I have not seen anything that impairs one’s religion, diminishes one’s respectability, ends one’s happiness or preoccupies one’s heart like arguing.” (Ibn Abi Ad-Dunya concerning the matter of silence.)

If one objects that a person must argue to obtain his rights, the reply is that as Al-Ghazali (may Allah have mercy on him).” The stern condemnation of it applies to those who argue without right or knowledge, such as the deputy of the judge who proceeds in dealing with disputation before knowing justice and on which side it is so he disputes without knowledge.

Of stern condemnation is the one who demands his right. That is because such a person does not only demand his right, but displays picking apart others’ words, lying, harming and assaulting towards his opponent. Or someone who adds abuse to his speech that is necessary to secure his rights, or is motivated to argue by nothing besides an obstinate desire to win and to finish his opponent.

As for someone who has been wronged and makes his case in away compatible with the Sacred Law, without belligerence, excessiveness, or importunateness, and not intending mere obstinacy and abuse, it is not unlawful, though it is better to avoid it if there is no way to do so, for keeping one’s tongue within the limits of fair play during the course of an argument is virtually impossible, Moreover, arguing produces rancor in hearts and causes animosity that can lead to actual hatred between two people, until each comes to be pleased when harm befalls the other and to be displeased at the good, and unleashes his tongue against the other’s reputation. Whoever argues runs the risk of these calamities. At minimum, a quarrel comes to preoccupy one’s heart so that during the prayer one’s thoughts turn to debating and arguing, and one does not remain, as one should, Disputation is the source of evil as well as arguing and picking a part one’s words, Therefore, one should not open the door for disputation unless for a necessity.

On the authority of Ibn `Abbas (may Allah be pleased with both of them) who said. The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

“It is enough sinful to be an arguing person.”( Timidhi)

Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) is reported to have said, “Disputation invokes disasters (upon the person).

On the authority of Abu Hurairah (may Allah be pleased with him) who said, “The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

“He who presses for something without knowledge remains under the hatred of Allah until he gives it up.” (Al-Asbahani in At-Targhib wa At-Tarhib.)

On the authority of Abu Umamah (may Allah be pleased with him) who said, “The Prophet (pbuh) said,

“No people went astray after having been guided save that they were afflicted with arguing” then he recited, {They did not mention him (Jesus) to you as an example except for argument.} (Al-Zukhruf: 58) (Timidhi)

The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

“The things I fear most for my Ummah is a case of “a scholar’s slip the arguing hypocrite over the Qur’an and the worldly life which cuts your necks off, so accuse it within your hearts.” (Ibn Hajar in Majma’ Az-Zawa’id)

The Prophet (pbuh) said,

“Arguing over the Qur’an is unbelief.”( Abu Dawud)